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Infertility has become one of the most common health issues among young couples in the recent years. According to the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction, infertility affects about 10 to 14 percent of the Indian population and expected to increase considerably. Approximately one-third of infertility is attributed to the female partner, one-third to the male … Continue reading “Myoinositols in Male Infertility”
|Infertility has become one of the most common health issues among young couples in the recent years. According to the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction, infertility affects about 10 to 14 percent of the Indian population and expected to increase considerably. Approximately one-third of infertility is attributed to the female partner, one-third to the male partner and others include the involvement of problems in both.Male infertility is a condition in a man which reduces the chances of his female partner getting pregnant.|
|The reasons include the problems with his sperm production, concentration or with sperm delivery. One of the Major factors that can damage the sperm is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several conditions can increase the level of oxidative stress in seminal fluid, which includes pathological conditions involving the reproductive tract (varicocele, prostatitis), social habits (smoking, alcohol abuse, drug addiction), environmental factors (radiation, industrial gases) and nutritional imbalance (unbalanced hyperlipidic diet, etc.). High ROS levels negatively affects motility, morphology, and DNA stability of spermatozoa.Plethora of evidence show that Myo-inositol (MI) can be potentially used in treating sperm morphology and male fertility. Myo-inositol is a member of the vitamin B-complex group which is found in a wide variety of foods including fresh fruits, beans, whole grains, and seeds. Myo-inositol is critical for cell growth, cell membrane formation, lipid synthesis, and cell signalling in your body.
MI is crucial for the development of spermatozoa. MI concentration is significantly higher in the seminiferous tubules than in serum. In male reproductive organs, MI is mainly produced by Sertoli cells in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and is involved in processes that include the regulation of motility, capacitation, and acrosome reaction of sperm cells. low MI levels within epididymis and in seminal fluid are associated with reduced fertility. It acts as a potent antioxidant agent both for the systemic treatment and for the improvement in the in-vitro quality of the sperm used for the fertilization in assisted reproductive procedures.
The success of fertilization process depends on how faster the sperm reaches the oocyte, fuse into its membrane and penetrate it to fertilize it. Fusing and penetrating the oocyte is a very hard task for the sperm.
MI is recommended in men with low sperm count (oligozoospermia), reduced sperm movement (Asthenozoospermia), and malformed sperm cells (teratozoospermia).
Spermatozoa of OAT patients are usually surrounded by amorphous material and their mitochondria have damaged cristae. Treatment with MI makes the amorphous material to disappear and restores the mitochondrial sheath to normal. MI can directly act at mitochondrial level by enhancing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP).
Acrosome reaction, a process occurring in the acrosome of the sperm, a cap-like structure over the anterior half of sperm’s head. It has been noticed that the signal transduction following acrosome reaction has phosphatidylinositol as second messenger, which suggest that MI is required to trigger the metabolic processes necessary for fertilization. Myo-inositol can regulate the osmotic property of the seminal fluid which can ameliorate the motility and the viscosity of sperm.
MI plays a role in the chemotaxis and human sperm thermotaxis through the activation of Phospholipase-C which results in production of INSP3 and calcium channels opening leading to an increase in Ca2+ intracellular concentrations in the flagellum. MI can also help in balancing the hormonal and metabolic parameters, as it acts as second messenger regulating the activities of several hormones such as FSH, TSH, and insulin.
To conclude, MI is crucial for all steps of sperm development. supplementing with MI will be more Beneficial in male Patients undergoing IVF procedures where it improves the spermatozoa count, quality, and its progressive motility in both normospermia and OAT patients.